This study evaluates the progress achieved in implementing the National Action Plan on Climate Change and presents a framework to facilitate effective implementation.
The Government of India, in 2008, released a National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which outlined existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation. In order to channelize its agenda on this front, the Government established eight national missions under the NAPCC. Given the stratified nature of planning and implementation of government programmes in the country, it is important to evaluate the process of integrating climate policy concerns into the existing governance framework. With varying roles addressed by the Centre, State and Local governments, and multiple authorities governing development and infrastructure provisioning aspects, it becomes vital to understand the underlying mechanism that is expected to facilitate the internalization of the Mission goals. This study evaluates the progress attained in the implementation of the National Missions. It discusses pointers to facilitate effective implementation, as well as highlights key policy aspects that augur well to further this national mandate.
The study uses a mixed methods Approach to examine the NAPCC’s progress through a combination of secondary data analysis including statutory disclosures and structured interviews with relevant stakeholders. The progress of the mission was tracked vis a vis quantitative and qualitative targets, implementation systems/market mechanisms in place and financial allocations undertaken. In-depth evaluation of the implementation process was undertaken to diagnose barriers across functions – Finance, Policy Administration, Monitoring, Reporting, Evaluation & Revision, and Compliance & Enforcement.
Findings from the evaluation suggest that revamping ongoing schemes to meet climate objectives could be the most practical route to mainstreaming climate initiatives to the nation’s development agenda. There is a need to strengthen the regulatory environment to enforce compliance across missions. Most missions provide policy support to implement programmes through operational and convergence guidelines and other existing norms. However, there is a lack of mission-specific mandates to ensure compliance to norms and benchmarks of standard performance. All missions, by virtue of their vast coverage and scope of work, require paramount levels of coordination, be it between the Central and State government or State and decentralized bodies or even between co-implementing agencies at any level. Most Missions acknowledge the need for harmonised implementation of activities.
A key implication of the study is the need to respond to administrative challenges in integrating climate change concerns in the missions within the existing structure of finance and governance. Further, it is important to explore the possibility of joint financing from the Centre and State Governments to enhance the take-up of mission components and activities. A robust regulatory structure may be required to enable the enforcement of Mission mandate and targets. Lastly, it is crucial to strengthen information systems to document and record suitable mission-relevant developments and initiatives, even if not necessarily motivated by a specific climate agenda that are dispersed at decentralised levels.